Like others have said, as long as your game can boot up and there are no immediate technical issues with the game, you can publish your game.
SteamPipe (the tool for uploading builds) is a bit confusing at first, but once you have it setup, you can easily upload builds.
For Steamworks features (achievements, etc.), you will need to use the Steamworks extension (ClickStore link).
Obviously, you might want to consider other features such as trading cards, Steam Cloud, and so on. Steam Cloud can be enabled automatically and requires little configuration.